Ancient landmass created after splitting of Gondwanaland. Consists of the loftiest mountains and deep valleys Consists of broad and shallow valleys, and rounded hills Composed of sedimentary rocks. Composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Introduction to ancient Egyptian civilization Life in ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt can be thought of as an oasis in the desert of northeastern Africa, dependent on the annual inundation of the Nile River to support its agricultural population.
Between the floodplain and the hills is a variable band of low desert that supported a certain amount of game. To the south lay the far less hospitable area of Nubiain which the river flowed through low sandstone hills that in most regions left only a very narrow strip of cultivable land.
West of the Nile was the arid Saharabroken by a chain of oases some to miles to km from the river and lacking in all other resources except for a few minerals. The eastern desert, between the Nile and the Red Sea, was more important, for it supported a small nomadic population and desert game, contained numerous mineral deposits, including gold, and was the route to the Red Sea.
To the northeast was the Isthmus of Suez. From the late 2nd millennium bce onward, numerous attacks were made by land and sea along the eastern Mediterranean coast. At first, relatively little cultural contact came by way of the Mediterranean Seabut from an early date Egypt maintained trading relations with the Lebanese port of Byblos present-day Jbail.
Egypt needed few imports to maintain basic standards of living, but good timber write about alluvial soil essential and not available within the country, so it usually was obtained from Lebanon. Minerals such as obsidian and lapis lazuli were imported from as far afield as Anatolia and Afghanistan.
Agriculture centred on the cultivation of cereal crops, chiefly emmer wheat Triticum dicoccum and barley Hordeum vulgare. The fertility of the land and general predictability of the inundation ensured very high productivity from a single annual crop.
This productivity made it possible to store large surpluses against crop failures and also formed the chief basis of Egyptian wealth, which was, until the creation of the large empires of the 1st millennium bce, the greatest of any state in the ancient Middle East.
As the river deposited alluvial silt, raising the level of the floodplain, and land was reclaimed from marsh, the area available for cultivation in the Nile valley and delta increased, while pastoralism declined slowly.
In addition to grain crops, fruit and vegetables were important, the latter being irrigated year-round in small plots. Fish was also vital to the diet. Papyruswhich grew abundantly in marshes, was gathered wild and in later times was cultivated.
It may have been used as a food crop, and it certainly was used to make rope, matting, and sandals. Cattle may have been domesticated in northeastern Africa. The Egyptians kept many as draft animals and for their various products, showing some of the interest in breeds and individuals that is found to this day in the Sudan and eastern Africa.
The donkey, which was the principal transport animal the camel did not become common until Roman timeswas probably domesticated in the region. The native Egyptian breed of sheep became extinct in the 2nd millennium bce and was replaced by an Asiatic breed.
Sheep were primarily a source of meat; their wool was rarely used. Goats were more numerous than sheep. Pigs were also raised and eaten.
Ducks and geese were kept for food, and many of the vast numbers of wild and migratory birds found in Egypt were hunted and trapped. Desert game, principally various species of antelope and ibex, were hunted by the elite; it was a royal privilege to hunt lions and wild cattle.
Pets included dogs, which were also used for hunting, cats, and monkeys.
In addition, the Egyptians had a great interest in, and knowledge of, most species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish in their environment. Most Egyptians were probably descended from settlers who moved to the Nile valley in prehistoric times, with population increase coming through natural fertility.
In various periods there were immigrants from Nubia, Libyaand especially the Middle East. They were historically significant and also may have contributed to population growth, but their numbers are unknown. Most people lived in villages and towns in the Nile valley and delta.
Dwellings were normally built of mud brick and have long since disappeared beneath the rising water table or beneath modern town sites, thereby obliterating evidence for settlement patterns. In antiquity, as now, the most favoured location of settlements was on slightly raised ground near the riverbank, where transport and water were easily available and flooding was unlikely.
Until the 1st millennium bce, Egypt was not urbanized to the same extent as Mesopotamia. Instead, a few centres, notably Memphis and Thebesattracted population and particularly the elite, while the rest of the people were relatively evenly spread over the land.
The size of the population has been estimated as having risen from 1 to 1. Much higher levels of population were reached in Greco-Roman times.The purpose of this page is to define a manufactured (mobile) home, a commonly used term in floodplain management.
Definition/Description. A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and is designed for use with or without a permanent foundation when attached to the required utilities. Oct 28, · , Raymond Earl Storie, Soil survey, the Pixley area, California, volume 1, page Scattered plantings of peaches are maintained on the light-textured deep alluvial soils of the Foster, Cajon, Hanford, Hesperia, and Greenfield series west of Porterville, near Woodville, Poplar, Sausalito School, and farther south along the Kern County boundary line north of Delano.
Abstract. Traces of life are nearly ubiquitous on Earth. However, a central unresolved question is whether these traces always indicate an active microbial community or whether, in extreme environments, such as hyperarid deserts, they instead reflect just dormant or dead cells.
The purpose of this page is to define the Community Assistance Program - State Support Services Element Program Grant. The Community Assistance Program –State Support Services Element (CAP-SSSE) program derives its authority from the National Flood Insurance Act of , as amended, the Flood Disaster Protection Act of and from 44 CFR Parts 59 and o: ostwarts: O: Osten, Orientalis, Orien, Oriente, Orientis = East: OAB: Operational advisory broadcasts: OAC: Osterreichischer Automobil Club: OACES: Oregon.
Glaciers in the Great Himalayas — Gangotri, Chaturangi, Bhagirathi, Kharak, Satopanth, Kamet, Milam and Pindari.
Passes in the Great Himalayas — Karakoram pass, Shipkila pass, Nathula, Bomdila pass. 2. The name of the states where highest peaks are located.