Updated May 11, You do not want to get infected with tetanus. The disease, which used to kill about 40 to 50 Canadians a year in the s and 30s, is now only rarely reported. In recent years, Canada has seen, on average, only a couple of cases a year.
Tiwari, MD Disease Description Tetanus is an acute, potentially fatal disease that is characterized by generalized increased rigidity and convulsive spasms of skeletal muscles.
Tetanus is caused by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium tetani. The spores enter the body through breaks in the skin, and germinate under anaerobic conditions. Puncture wounds and wounds with a significant amount of tissue injury are more likely to promote germination.
The organisms produce a potent toxin, tetanospasmin, which binds to gangliosides at the neuromuscular junction and proceeds along the neuron to the ventral horns of the spinal cord or motor horns of the cranial nerves in 2—14 days.
The toxin can also be absorbed into the blood stream and lymphatics. Once the toxin reaches the nervous system, it causes painful and often violent muscular contractions. The muscle stiffness usually initially involves the jaw lockjaw and neck, and later becomes generalized.
Tetanus is a noncommunicable disease—it is not transmitted from 1 person to another. In the United States, reported mortality due to tetanus has declined at a constant rate since the early s, and documented tetanus incidence has declined since the mid- to late s, when national reporting of tetanus cases began Figure 1.
Several factors have contributed to the decline in tetanus morbidity and mortality, including the widespread use of tetanus toxoid—containing vaccines since the late s. Other factors include improved wound care and postexposure use of tetanus immune globulin TIGeither for prophylaxis in wound management or for treatment of tetanus.
In addition, increased rural-to-urban migration with consequent decreased exposure to tetanus spores may also have contributed to the decline in tetanus mortality noted during the first half of the 20th century.
Wherever effective immunization programs are in place, the incidence of tetanus declines and the age distribution of case-patients shifts to reflect underimmunization.
From througha total of cases and 16 deaths from tetanus were reported in the United States. In a survey, As of December18 countries have not eliminated maternal and neonatal tetanus.
Prompt administration of tetanus toxoid and TIG may decrease the severity of the disease. Because tetanus is an uncommon disease, consultation on clinical management may be useful. Importance of Surveillance Because tetanus is preventable, the possibility of failure to vaccinate should be investigated in every case.
Each case should be used as a case study to determine which factors contributed to the failure, and which measures could be taken to improve the vaccine delivery system and prevent such cases in the future. Information obtained through surveillance is used to assess national incidence and current epidemiologic trends.
The information is also used to raise awareness of the importance of immunization and to characterize persons or geographic areas in which additional efforts are required to raise vaccination levels and reduce disease incidence.
Top of Page Disease Reduction and Vaccine Coverage Goals Since herd immunity does not play a role in protecting individuals against tetanus, virtually all persons must be vaccinated in order to achieve individual protection.
Healthy People emphasizes the importance of achieving and maintaining high levels of tetanus-containing vaccine coverage in the United States and calls for continued efforts to ensure effective tetanus vaccination coverage, with particular emphasis on children and adolescents.
A clinically compatible case, as reported by a healthcare professional. There is no definition for confirmed tetanus. Top of Page Laboratory Testing There is no diagnostic laboratory test for tetanus; the diagnosis is entirely clinical. Serologic results obtained before TIG is administered can support susceptibility if they demonstrate very low or undetectable anti-tetanus antibody levels.
Reporting and Case Notification Case reporting within a jurisdiction Each state and territory has regulations or laws governing the reporting of diseases and conditions of public health importance. Persons reporting these conditions should contact their state health department for state-specific reporting requirements.
Detailed information on reportable conditions in each state is available through the CSTE[ 17 ] Tetanus is a reportable disease in all states and territories of the United States. The Tetanus Surveillance Worksheet is included as Appendix 18, to serve as a guide for data collection during investigation of reported cases.
The Tetanus Surveillance Worksheet is included as Appendix 18, to serve as a guide for data collection during case investigations and case notifications to CDC.ashio-midori.com is your one-stop shop for information about vaccines and immunizations. Read easy-to-understand immunization and vaccination schedules, get info on diseases that vaccinations prevent, and have your vaccine questions answered.
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Diabetes prevalence (% of population ages 20 to 79) Diarrhea treatment (% of children under 5 receiving oral rehydration and continued feeding) Fertility rate, total (births per woman).
The word 'prevalence' of Tetanus usually means the estimated population of people who are managing Tetanus at any given time (i.e.
people with Tetanus). The term 'incidence' of Tetanus means the annual diagnosis rate, or the number of new cases of Tetanus diagnosed each year (i.e.
getting Tetanus). World Health Organization Department of Immunization, Vaccines And Biologicals. Vaccine preventable diseases: monitoring system.