Rheumatoid arthritis physiology

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis JRA is the most common rheumatic childhood disease; its onset is before 16 years of age and it persists for at least 6 weeks.

Rheumatoid arthritis physiology

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease in which inflammation of the peripheral joints occurs.

Rheumatoid arthritis physiology

The disease process within the Rheumatoid arthritis physiology begins as an inflammation of the synovium joint-lining tissue. In most cases there is an increase, often considerable, in the amount of synovial… Rheumatoid arthritis usually first attacks joints of the hands and feet symmetrically before progressing to the wrists, knees, or shoulders; the onset of the disorder is gradual.

Pain and stiffness in one or more small joints are usually followed by swelling and heat and are accompanied by muscle pain that may become worse, persist for weeks or months, or subside.

Joint pain is not always proportionate to the amount of swelling and warmth generated.

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Fatiguemuscle weakness, and weight loss are common symptoms. Often, before prominent signs appear, the affected person may complain of coldness of hands and Rheumatoid arthritis physiology, numbness, and tingling, all of which suggest compression of the vasomotor nerve.

Active inflammation is first seen in the synovial membranes of the joints, which become red and swollen. Later, a layer of roughened granulation tissue, or pannus, protrudes over the surface of the cartilage.

Under the pannus the cartilage is eroded and destroyed. The joints become fixed in place ankylosed by thick and hardened pannus, which also may cause displacement and deformity of the joints.

The skin, bones, and muscles adjacent to the joints atrophy from disuse and destruction. Painful nodules over bony prominences may persist or regress.

Wine Arthritis Pain Rheumatoid Physiology - tobi-project thesis

Complex collections of cells surrounded by lymphocytes in the connective tissue of muscle and nerve bundles cause pressure and pain; the nodular lesions may invade the connective tissue of the blood vessel walls. Most persons with rheumatoid arthritis have characteristic autoantibodies in their blood, one of the pieces of evidence implicating an autoimmune mechanism in the disease process.

These autoantibodies are collectively called rheumatoid factor. It is not known what causes the autoimmune reaction, but there is evidence that persons afflicted with the disease have a genetic susceptibility to an environmental agent such as a virus.

Once activated by such an agent, a series of immune system reactions causes inflammation. The most useful medications in relieving the pain and disability of rheumatoid arthritis are aspirin and ibuprofenwhich have anti-inflammatory properties.

If large doses of these are not sufficient, small doses of corticosteroids such as prednisone may be used. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs DMARDs also may be prescribed to slow the course of the disease.

Physical therapy is helpful in relieving pain and swelling in the affected joints, with an emphasis on the application of heat to the joints followed by exercises that extend the range of motion. Rest is important, in association with maintaining a good posture to prevent deformity.

In cases of severe pain or disability, surgery is used to replace destroyed hip, kneeor finger joints with artificial substitutes. Orthopedic appliances are frequently used to correct or prevent gross deformity and malfunction.

The outcome of rheumatoid arthritis is unpredictable, with afflicted individuals either recovering completely or progressing to crippling disease. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:The Future of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Hand Surgery - Combining Evolutionary Pharmacology and Surgical Technique M Malahias, H Gardner, S Hindocha, .

Rheumatoid Arthritis — Pathophysiology and Implications for Therapy Edward D.


Harris, Jr., M.D. This article has no abstract; the first words appear below. Nov 30,  · Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is a generic term for arthritis that has an onset before the age of 16 and persists for more than 6 weeks.

The JRA nomenclature represents an exclusion diagnosis that includes all forms of chronic childhood arthritis of unknown origin. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease in which inflammation of the peripheral joints occurs.

The disease process within the joints begins as an inflammation of the synovium (joint-lining tissue).

Anatomy of Rheumatoid Arthritis

In most cases there is an increase, often considerable, in the amount of synovial. Exercise physiology is still a pretty valuable service for someone with Rheumatoid Arthritis, so I kept myself on the list, and today was my appointment.

In a nutshell, an exercise physiologist will assess current function, strength and mobility and prescribe exercise to improve and/or maintain function. Jun 06,  · Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), also known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), is a heterogeneous group of diseases that differs markedly from adult RA.

Anatomy and Physiology: Rheumatoid Arthritis