The nature and working of diplomacy between and among states has undergone some significant changes over the last two decades.
Byzantine diplomacy The key challenge to the Byzantine Empire was to maintain a set of relations between itself and its sundry neighbors, including the GeorgiansIberiansthe Germanic peoplesthe Bulgarsthe Slavsthe Armeniansthe Hunsthe Avarsthe Franksthe Lombardsand the Arabsthat embodied and so maintained its imperial status.
All Relevance of track ii diplomacy neighbors lacked a key resource that Byzantium had taken over from Rome, namely a formalized legal structure.
When they set about forging formal political institutions, they were dependent on the empire. Whereas classical writers are fond of making a sharp distinction between peace and war, for the Byzantines diplomacy was a form of war by other means.
On Strategy, from the 6th century, offers advice about foreign embassies: Their attendants, however, should be kept under surveillance to keep them from obtaining any information by asking questions of our people. Milan played a leading role, especially under Francesco Sforza who established permanent embassies to the other city states of Northern Italy.
Tuscany and Venice were also flourishing centres of diplomacy from the 14th century onwards. From Italy the practice was spread across Europe. Milan was the first to send a representative to the court of France in However, Milan refused to host French representatives fearing espionage and that the French representatives would intervene in its internal affairs.
As foreign powers such as France and Spain became increasingly involved in Italian politics the need to accept emissaries was recognized. Soon the major European powers were exchanging representatives. Spain was the first to send a permanent representative; it appointed an ambassador to the Court of St.
By the late 16th century, permanent missions became customary. The Holy Roman Emperorhowever, did not regularly send permanent legates, as they could not represent the interests of all the German princes who were in theory all subordinate to the Emperor, but in practice each independent.
In rules of modern diplomacy were further developed. The top rank of representatives was an ambassador. At that time an ambassador was a nobleman, the rank of the noble assigned varying with the prestige of the country he was delegated to.
Strict standards developed for ambassadors, requiring they have large residences, host lavish parties, and play an important role in the court life of their host nation. In Rome, the most prized posting for a Catholic ambassador, the French and Spanish representatives would have a retinue of up to a hundred.
Even in smaller posts, ambassadors were very expensive. Smaller states would send and receive envoyswho were a rung below ambassador. Somewhere between the two was the position of minister plenipotentiary.
Diplomacy was a complex affair, even more so than now. The ambassadors from each state were ranked by complex levels of precedence that were much disputed.
States were normally ranked by the title of the sovereign; for Catholic nations the emissary from the Vatican was paramount, then those from the kingdomsthen those from duchies and principalities.
Representatives from republics were ranked the lowest which often angered the leaders of the numerous German, Scandinavian and Italian republics. Determining precedence between two kingdoms depended on a number of factors that often fluctuated, leading to near-constant squabbling. Ambassadors were often nobles with little foreign experience and no expectation of a career in diplomacy.
They were supported by their embassy staff. These professionals would be sent on longer assignments and would be far more knowledgeable than the higher-ranking officials about the host country. Embassy staff would include a wide range of employees, including some dedicated to espionage.
The need for skilled individuals to staff embassies was met by the graduates of universities, and this led to a great increase in the study of international lawFrench, and history at universities throughout Europe. Frontispiece of the Acts of the Congress of Vienna.
At the same time, permanent foreign ministries began to be established in almost all European states to coordinate embassies and their staffs. These ministries were still far from their modern form, and many of them had extraneous internal responsibilities.
Britain had two departments with frequently overlapping powers until They were also far smaller than they are currently. France, which boasted the largest foreign affairs department, had only some 70 full-time employees in the s.
The elements of modern diplomacy slowly spread to Eastern Europe and Russiaarriving by the early 18th century. The entire edifice would be greatly disrupted by the French Revolution and the subsequent years of warfare.
The revolution would see commoners take over the diplomacy of the French state, and of those conquered by revolutionary armies.Track II diplomacy or "backchannel diplomacy" is the practice of "non-governmental, informal and unofficial contacts and activities between private citizens or groups of individuals, sometimes called 'non-state actors'".
It contrasts with track I diplomacy, which is official, governmental diplomacy that occur inside official government channels. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download.
However, given its western origin there have been varied views and opinions vis-à-vis the role and relevance of Track Two diplomacy in the South Asian Context.
Critics generally argue that the various non-official dialogues-particularly Track Two initiatives-have largely remained confined to the quasi-official realm with a few retired government officials, both civil and military, dominating most of the activities.
If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. other types above (Track One and Track Two diplomacy), and is commonly called “Track One and a Half.” This is the long-term unofficial facilitated joint analysis among negotiators, LUFJAAN for short, that Conflict Management Group conducted January , May , June , and July (Nan.
Track II diplomacy is a specific kind of informal diplomacy, in which non-officials (academic scholars, retired civil and military officials, public figures, social activists) engage in dialogue, with the aim of conflict resolution, or confidence-building.