Ostensibly a struggle between two competing economic and political approaches, the Cold War is better remembered for the nuclear arms race that it engendered and which for so long kept the world wary about impending nuclear war. The Cold War affected every facet of life, and not least the approach to education in the United States.
Beingnature, and experience In order to develop and articulate his philosophical system, Dewey first needed to expose what he regarded as the flaws of the existing tradition.
He believed that the distinguishing feature of Western philosophy was its assumption that true being—that which is fully real or fully knowable—is changeless, perfect, and eternal and the source of whatever reality the world of experience may possess.
The Western tradition thus made a radical distinction between true reality on the one hand and the endless varieties and variations of worldly human experience on the other.
Dewey held that this philosophy of nature was drastically impoverished. Rejecting any dualism between being and experience, he proposed that all things are subject to change and do change.
There is no static being, and there is no changeless nature. Nor is experience purely subjective, because the human mind is itself part and parcel of nature.
Human experiences are the outcomes of a range of interacting processes and are thus worldly events. The challenge to human life, therefore, is to determine how to live well with processes of change, not somehow to transcend them. Nature and the construction of ends Dewey developed a metaphysics that examined characteristics of nature that encompassed human experience but were either ignored by or misrepresented by more traditional philosophers.
The precarious For Dewey, a precarious event is one that somehow makes ongoing experience problematic; thus, any obstacle, disruption, danger, or surprise of any kind is precarious. As noted earlier, because humanity is a part of nature, all things that humans encounter in their daily experience, including other humans and the social institutions they inhabit, are natural events.
The arbitrary cruelty of a tyrant or the kindness shown by a stranger is as natural and precarious as the destruction wrought by a flood or the vibrant colours of a sunset. Human ideas and moral norms must also be viewed in this way. Human knowledge is wholly intertwined with precarious, constantly changing nature.
Histories The constancy of change does not imply a complete lack of continuity with the past stages of natural processes. What Dewey meant by a history was a process of change with an identifiable outcome.
When the constituent processes of a history are identified, they become subject to modification, and their outcome can be deliberately varied and secured. This is why Dewey was so concerned with developing a philosophy of education.
With an appropriate knowledge of the conditions necessary for human growth, an individual may develop in any of a variety of ways. The object of education is thus to promote the fruition of an active history of a specific kind—a human history. Ends and goods Since at least the time of Aristotle — bcemany Western philosophers have made use of the notion of end, or final cause—i.
But such ends must be discerned before they can be fully attained. For Dewey, on the other hand, an end is a deliberately constructed outcome of a history.
Such an end is a fulfillment of these particular conditions, and it is unique to them. Similarly, there is no such thing as an absolute good against which actions may be evaluated; rather, any constructed end that promotes human flourishing while taking into account the precarious is a good.The United States today stands in a position in the world similar to that of Rome at the height of its expansion.
It was founded on principles which were admired by the whole world and has been a model for many nations since. PES is the national society for philosophy of education in the United States of America. This site provides information about PES, its services, history, and publications, and links to online resources relevant to the philosophy of education.
Philosophy of the United States Education.
Topics: Teacher, Improving the Education System in the United States Education is the key to success. Having a good education allows people to be offered different opportunities throughout life.
Presents a new history of philosophy of education that maintains that dialogs of educational philosophy cannot be understood without reference to the intellectual, political, and social movements of the time. Presents a new history of philosophy of education that maintains that dialogs of educational philosophy cannot be understood without reference to the intellectual, political, and social movements of the time.
G. Stanley Hall (–) was perhaps the most prominent psychologist in America in the later years of the nineteenth century. He founded the American Journal of Psychology (), was the first president of the American Psychological Association (), served as president of Clark University for 31 years, taught philosophy, and wrote a good deal .