Living on the plate margins essay

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Living on the plate margins essay

Body skeleton similar to that of Protostegabut bones of plastron more slender, and median fontanelle larger. Zittel, Eastman, et al pp. This animal was probably very similar to today's leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriaceaand it is thought that Protosphargis' shell, which could exceed two meters in length, may have been similarily equipped with longitudinal ridges along the back, which help these animals to move quickly in the water.

The reduction of the shell is greater than that of the Protostegidae, and more reminiscent of Dermochelys. The bones of the limbs also show a remarkable specialization to marine life.

Either a primitive dermochelyid or an unrelated but convergent form. Wikipedia Italian Wikipedia Dutch Alternative relationships of chelonioid species according Living on the plate margins essay left the morphology-based phylogeny of Gaffney and Meylan Natator depressus was not included in that analysis and right the molecular-based phylogeny of Thomson and Shaffer Names of higher taxa follow Gaffney and Meylan Silhouettes not to scale.

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Palaeos Vertebrates Chelonii: Chelonioidea The concept was first created ca.
Usage note Introduction to the Lithosphere Summary of the Chapter All landforms are composed of rocks or their weathered by products.
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Diagram from Jones et al, fig 1; Creative Commons Attribution. Crown Group Chelonioidea Phylogeny: Gaffney and Meylan, erected the clade Euchelonioidea for the Cheloniidae, and a clade uniting Notochelone, Allopleuron, Desmatochelys, and the Dermochelyoidae Dermochelyidae and Protostegidae.

The tendency now according to statistical-computational cladistics is towards interpreting these Dermochelyid-like taxa as the result of evolutionary convergence. The name Euchelonioidea can be still be used in a more limited context as a synonym to or alternative for the confusing because the ambiguity in regards to the Linnaean-based taxonomy phylogenetic use of "Chelonoidea" and the the clumsy "Crown Chelonoidea" MAK Extant Chelonioidea include two families and eight species of extant sea turtles, the monospecific Dermochelyidae Dermochelys coriacea and the Cheloniidae.

Both lineages are represented by a number of fossil forms from the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. They are pelagic animals with a worldwide distribution. Diet varies according to species, the giant leatherback turtle Dermochelys feeds mainly on jellyfish, ridleys and loggerheads Caretta and Lepidochelys on crabs and other benthic invertebrates, and green turtle Chelonia mydasthe only herbivorous species, adults feeding on kelp [Thalassia testudinium] Although they are widely protected, every living species is endangered by human activities, whether poaching, oceanic pollution, being caught in nets, injury through boat propellers, or loss of nesting sites through urbanization of coasts and their encasement in seawalls and revetments, and increasingly efficient fisheries.

Fr the Late Cretaceous, pan-oceanic Phylogeny: Secondary palate formed by broad maxilla with contributions from palatine, choanal passages separated by ventral plate of vomer forming prominent part of palate; foramen caroticum laterale and canalis caroticus lateralis much larger in diameter than foramen anterius canalis carotici interni and medial branch of canalis caroticus internus.

As with Panchelonioideathe name Pancheloniidae is used by Joyce et al to refer to the stem-group that includes crown Cheloniidae and a number of extinct and ancestral lineages although technically speaking in cladistics you are not supposed to say "ancestors" because it cannot be proved that one species is an ancestor, we are using the term in the colloquial sense.

Alternatives are "Chelonioinea" and Cheloniidae Gray, sensu Hirayama, We have retained the original Cheloniidae to refer to both more advanced stem and also crown taxa. Cheloniidae in this definition is represented by such taxa as Puppigerus and Euclastes Joyce et al p.

The boundaries between Pan Cheloniidae and more primitive or ancestral stem Pan Chelonoidea are blurred. On the one hand, Lophochelyines and Euclastes as "Osteopygis" have been included in the Toxochelyidae Carroll,p. Late Campanian of Mexico. Previously included under Euclastes, this is a much more primitive animal, either a stem chelonioid or a very basal cheloniid, and only distantly reelated to Cenozoic cheloniids.


It is distinguished from both both stem-chelonioids such as Toxochelys and stem-cheloniids like Ctenochelys Lophochelyinae by an extensive secondary palate, an advanced feature that allows simultanous breathing and feeding. Mexichelys fed on hard-shelled prey durophagy.

These animals were among the first that replaced the protostegids during the Campanian, but by the Maastrichtian they had in turn been replaced by convergently durophagous stem-cheloniid lineage that continued into the middle Miocene.

The Lophochelyinae are a family of Late Cretaceous primitive sea turtles that represented a distinct and apparently geographically limited lineage. They range in size from the small Lophochelys, with a plastron length of about 20 cm, to the large Ctenochelys, with an equivalent length of aboout a meter, and the very large Prionochelys, witha shell of about 1.

The fossil remains of these animals have been found in Alabama, Arkansas and New Jersey. We have tentatively followed the latter's phylogeny but it should remain provisional at best. Here used rather informerly to include Euclastes grade sea turtlles and above, which heps to reduce the long phylogenies listed above.

There probably isn't a clear distinction between Cheloniidae and Pancheloniidae, unless it's an apomorphic one defined by specific characteristics not found in Lophochelyines etc MAK Lytoloma elegans from the Latest Cretaceous of Morocco.

Rhetechelys, Osteopygoides, Osteopygis crania only Range: Latest Cretaceous to Eocene of North America. Lytoloma Cope, is a closely related genus, it is known from the Latest Cretaceous of England, as well as Morrocco and possibly the Eocene of Tunisia.

Copyright John Maisano Characters: Skull resembling that of Caretta. Carapace rounded posteriorly, vacuities of shell smaller than in Carettas; epiplastrals narrow; exposed portion of entoplastron very short, xiphiplastrals uniting extensively in the median line.This compilation is dedicated to the memory of our nameless forebears, who were the inventors of the pens and inks, paper and incunabula, glyphs and alphabets.

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Living on the plate margins essay

Her. (used relatively in restrictive clauses having that as the antecedent): Damaged goods constituted part of that which was sold at the auction. (used after a preposition to represent a specified antecedent): the horse on which I rode.

East Antarctic Ice Sheet -

(used relatively to represent a specified or implied antecedent) the one that; a particular one that: You may choose which you like. A plate margin is just the edge of a tectonic plate. A "continental" margin is not the same thing as a "plate" margin.

A continental margin is the edge of .

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