Ruch As important as productivity is to the continued economic development of the world, it is surprising that so little is known about measuring and managing it. Part of the problem may lie in the unit of analysis industry uses to measure productivity and in a failure to recognize the complexity of the relationships between the productivity of the individual worker and the total performance of the organization.
Posted on August 31, by energyskeptic Alice Friedemann. Last update Oct 23,first [ Formerly titled: Shorter versions appear in the following books: But the root of the matter is whether growing biomass for fuel can be made sustainable.
Since fossil fuels are finite, it certainly makes sense to turn to biomass to provide fuel to replace oil.
After all, besides water, air, and dirt, plants are the most abundant and renewable resource that could possible scale up to replace fossil fuels. But is there enough biomass? The Department of Energy lists ways biomass is already being used that will compete with its use as a fuel and for electricity generation Ruth Table 3.
Since trucks and rail are the basis of civilization as we know it, all, most of this biomass ought to be converted to 2 diesel to keep trucks and locomotives running.
Currently biodiesel is just 1 percent of total diesel production by volume, with soybeans making up 57 percent of that feedstock. Oil is a biofuel, but nonrenewable since it took Mother Nature millions of years to brew withpounds of plants per gallon, which is equivalent to cramming 40 acres of wheat into your gas tank every 20 miles Dukes.
And therein lies the rub. It takes enormous amounts of biomass to make liquid fuels. To do that would require 15 billion metric tons of plant biomass taking up billion cubic meters bcm.
But only 2 billion metric tons of rice, wheat, soybeans, corn, and other grains and oil seeds with a volume of 2. In the United States all green plants collectively produce biomass equivalent to about 53 exajoules of energy per year from sunlight, only about half of our total fossil energy use.
The best, most productive land east of the Mississippi that can grow soybeans with rainfall. This would generate million tonnes of Dried Distillers Grain DDG byproduct, 10 times more than the entire consumption of high protein commercial feeds — 51 million tonnes in Pro-ethanol scientists add DDG as a positive net energy gain, when in fact it will take a huge amount of energy to dispose of most of this environmental pollution, only a small percent of which can be eaten by lifestock, and only carried so far or the diesel fuel used to transport it is larger than the energy contained in the DDG.
Just one of many silver bullets. But people argue endlessly about EROI because of the boundaries do you include the energy to make the tractor that planted the corn or not? The Dirt on Dirt.
Ethanol is an agribusiness get-rich-quick scheme that will bankrupt our topsoil. Nineteenth century western farmers converted their corn into whiskey to make a profit Rorabaugh The energy to haul moonshine is a tiny fraction of the energy to haul corn to distant cities after all, more of a positive EROI if you will.
Archer Daniels Midland ADMa large grain processor, came up with a similar scheme in the 20th century; ethanol. But ethanol was a product in search of a market, so ADM spent three decades relentlessly lobbying for ethanol to be used in gasoline.
Today ADM makes record profits from ethanol sales and government subsidies Barrionuevo Fuels made from biomass are a lot like the nuclear powered airplanes the Air Force tried to build from tofor billions of dollars.
They never got off the ground. The idea was interesting — atomic jets could fly for months without refueling. But the lead shielding to protect the crew and several months of food and water was too heavy for the plane to take off. Biomass fuels have equally obvious and predictable reasons for failure.
Odum says that time explains why renewable energy provides such low energy yields compared to non-renewable fossil fuels. The more work left to nature, the higher the energy yield, but the longer the time required. Although coal and oil took millions of years to form into dense, concentrated solar power, all we had to do was extract and transport them Odum With every step required to transform a fuel into energy, there is less and less energy yield.Strategic management is the art, science, and craft of formulating, implementing, and evaluating cross-functional decisions that will enable an organization to achieve its long-term objectives.
It involves specifying the organization’s mission, vision, and objectives; developing policies and plans to achieve these objectives; and then. Discuss the human resources management responsibilities of all managers. Explain the role of the human resources department.
Discuss the impact of organizational culture and climate on human resources management. Describe the external environmental factors affecting human resources management policies and practices, and explain their impact.
Offered by: Janam Publications Inc. Category: Other. This article will look at the top ten ways a building designer might achieve a greener project. ashio-midori.com needs to be stored with a moisture content of 15% or less, but it’s typically %, and rain or snow during harvest will raise these levels even higher (DOE Feedstock Roadmap).
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This makes it possible to vary shot sizes for any of the different cleaning methods including spray cleaning, bucket cleaning or scrubber driers, but it requires min imal user training or "SmartDose also dramatically reduces the environmental footprint of all its users.
Aug 21, · four external environmental factors and six internal environmental factors that help organizations achieve optimal function. Show More. Show Less.
Ask Your Own Homework Question. List the top five environmental factors that help organizations achieve optimal function.5/5.