Directional drilling can be used to reach targets that cannot be drilled with a vertical well. For example, it may not be possible to get a drilling permit for a well located within a populated area or within a park. However, a well could be drilled just outside of the populated area or park and then steered directionally to hit the target. What is Directional Drilling?
Man wrestle horse, outside FTC. Signifies taming of the markets. The Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice on Friday, August 19,issued revised Horizontal Merger Guidelines that outline how the federal antitrust agencies evaluate the likely competitive impact of mergers and whether those mergers comply with U.
These changes to the Guidelines mark the first major revision of the merger guidelines in 18 years, and is intended to give businesses a better understanding of how the FTC and DOJ will evaluate proposed mergers moving forward. For example, the new Guidelines explain that the effect on innovation is something that will be considered when determining whether a horizontal merger is acceptable.
The rationale is relatively straight forward: The FTC issued proposed revisions for public comment on April 20, For those interested, the FTC has posted all of the written comments received. Originally, the Horizontal Merger Horizontal world 2010 were first adopted inand then revised in The Guidelines have and will serve as an outline of the main analytical techniques, practices and enforcement policies the FTC and the DOJ use to evaluate mergers and acquisitions involving actual or potential competitors.
The newly issued Guidelines take into account legal and economic developments that have occurred since the revision, but according to the agencies are not intended to represent a change in the direction of merger review policy. Instead they are intended to offer more clarity on the merger review process to better assist the business community and, in particular, parties to mergers and acquisitions.
The relevant statutory provisions include Section 7 of the Clayton Act, 15 U. Notwithstanding, it is Section 7 of the Clayton Act that is most often implicated. As a result of this experience these two agencies have identified certain types of evidence that help them characterize the influence and impact a particular merger is likely to have on the marketplace.
Hence, a primary goal of the guidelines is to help the agencies to uniformly identify and challenge competitively harmful mergers while avoiding unnecessary interference with mergers that either are competitively beneficial or likely will have no competitive impact on the marketplace. A byproduct is to give the business community information about what types of mergers are likely to result in the most scrutiny.
The Horizontal Merger Guidelines, which were first adopted inand revised inserve as an outline of the main analytical techniques, practices and enforcement policies the FTC and the Department of Justice use to evaluate mergers and acquisitions involving actual or potential competitors under federal antitrust laws.
The guidelines issued today take into account the legal and economic developments since the guidelines were issued. They are not intended to represent a change in the direction of merger review policy, but to offer more clarity on the merger review process to better assist the business community and, in particular, parties to mergers and acquisitions.
The Guidelines are different from the Guidelines in several important ways. Clarify that merger analysis does not use a single methodology, but is a fact-specific process through which the agencies use a variety of tools to analyze the evidence to determine whether a merger may substantially lessen competition.
Provide an updated explanation of the hypothetical monopolist test used to define relevant antitrust markets and how the agencies implement that test in practice. Update the concentration thresholds that determine whether a transaction warrants further scrutiny by the agencies.
Provide an expanded discussion of how the agencies evaluate unilateral competitive effects, including effects on innovation. Provide an updated section on coordinated effects. The guidelines clarify that coordinated effects, like unilateral effects, include conduct not otherwise condemned by the antitrust laws.
Provide a simplified discussion of how the agencies evaluate whether entry into the relevant market is so easy that a merger is not likely to enhance market power.
Add new sections on powerful buyers, mergers between competing buyers, and partial acquisitions. Specifically, curtailment of innovation could be of concern if it is believed that the merger would reduce incentive to continue with an existing product-development effort or if there would be a reduced incentive to initiate development of new products.
Conversely, the Guidelines also address when a merger might seem appropriate. For example, the FTC and DOJ will also consider whether the merger is likely to foster innovation that would not otherwise have take place, by bringing together complementary capabilities that could not otherwise be combined absent a merged company.
For example, efficiencies achieved through merger may lead to more innovation and new or improved products. This has been a successful process due to the commitment of the talented staff from both agencies and the excellent working relationship with the FTC led by Jon Leibowitz.
He consults with attorneys facing peculiar procedural issues at the Patent Office, advises investors and executives on patent law changes and pending litigation matters, and works with start-up businesses throughout the United States and around the world, primarily dealing with software and computer related innovations.
The pages, articles and comments on IPWatchdog. Discuss this There are currently 1 Comment comments. Morgan August 23, 1: I noted that I was very familiar with that case, and that it was an uncontested consent judgment.Nov 06, · I have two horizontal lines in my Word document that I did not add.
One is in the middle of the document at the end of the page and one is at the end of the index. I can not select them and I can not select the paragraph return before and after it at the same time.
I can do each individually. Insert Horizontal Lines In Word Documents Quickly. Brian Burgess June 22, , am EDT. When you want to quickly insert a horizontal line into your Word document instead of going through the Borders and Shading dialog box in the Ribbon here is a keyboard shortcut to save you time.
Horizontal and vertical delivery of health services: what are the trade offs (English) Abstract. Health services (curative and preventive) can be provided using two modes of delivery: horizontal and vertical. When creating a document, you may need to use both portrait and landscape orientation since document content does not always fit in one orientation.
Here is how to use both of them in your document in Word We’ll demonstrate this using a blank document. 1. .
Horizontal Co-operation Agreements, SEC () /2 Dear Sirs/Madams: The American Intellectual Property Law Association (“AIPLA”) appreciates the opportunity to and includes members from around the world. AIPLA members represent a wide and diverse spectrum of individuals, companies, and institutions involved in the 17 March Aug 23, · Rain in Pennsylvania today shortened the slate of games scheduled for Monday in the Little League World Series as both United States games were rained out on Monday evening.
The games will be made up on Tuesday, August 24th.