Instead, they are paid wages in return for their labor. An advantage of the capitalist system is generally increased productivity and efficiency of the production process over a P2P system, since traditional businesses have the advantages of economies of scale and mass-production techniques. A P2P economy can exist within capitalism.
The adjective pyriform or piriform means pear-shaped. Description[ edit ] Pear blossoms The pear is native to coastal and mildly temperate regions of the Old Worldfrom western Europe and north Africa east right across Asia.
The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 2—12 centimetres 0.
Most pears are deciduousbut one or two species in southeast Asia are evergreen. The flowers are white, rarely tinted yellow or pink, 2—4 centimetres 0. The fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the flower-stalk the so-called calyx tube greatly dilated.
Enclosed within its cellular flesh is the true fruit: From the Economics pear rim of the receptacle are given off the five sepals ,[ vague ] the five petalsand the very numerous stamens. Pears and apples cannot always be distinguished by the form of the fruit;  some pears look very much like some apples, e.
One major difference is that the flesh of pear fruit contains stone cells also called "grit". Pyrus calleryana in flower Pear cultivation in cool temperate climates extends to the remotest antiquity, and there is evidence of its use as a food since prehistoric times.
Many traces of it have been found in prehistoric pile dwellings around Lake Zurich. The pear was also cultivated by the Romans, who ate the fruits raw or cooked, just like apples.
Other small-fruited pears, distinguished by their early ripening and apple-like fruit, may be referred to as P. Pears have been cultivated in China for approximately years. The genus is thought to have originated in present-day Western China in the foothills of the Tian Shana mountain range of Central Asia, and to have spread to the north and south along mountain chains, evolving into a diverse group of over 20 widely recognized primary species.
The French names of pears grown in English medieval gardens suggest that their reputation, at the least, was French; a favored variety in the accounts was named for Saint Rule or Regul', Bishop of Senlis.
Other small-fruited species are frequently used as rootstocks for the cultivated forms. Major recognized taxa[ edit ] Left to right, top to bottom Korean pear, Bosc pear, Forelle pear, red D'Anjou pear, Bartlett pear, green D'Anjou pear, Seckel pear, Comice pear Many varieties, such as the Nashi pearare not " pear-shaped ".Home» Economics Pear Economics Pear 3 3.
1 Market equilibriuM and efficiency Equilibrium Learning outcomes • Explain,usingdiagrams,howdemandandsupplyinteracttoproducemarket equilibrium. A peer-to-peer (P2P) economy is a decentralized model whereby two individuals interact to buy or sell goods and services directly with each other, without an intermediary third-party, or without.
Economics of Pest and Disease Outbreaks in Tree Fruit Xiaojiao Jiang Postdoctoral Associate School of Economic Sciences equilibrium displacement approach is calibrated for the U.S. pear industry to simulate Economics of Pest and Disease Outbreaks in Tree Fruit 1.
Introduction. Recession shapes are used by economists to describe different types of recessions. There is no specific academic theory or classification system for recession shapes; rather the terminology is used as an informal shorthand to .
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Economics of Pest and Disease Outbreaks in Tree Fruit Xiaojiao Jiang Postdoctoral Associate School of Economic Sciences equilibrium displacement approach is calibrated for the U.S. pear industry to simulate Economics of Pest and Disease Outbreaks in Tree Fruit 1. Introduction.