Cornerstone program is designed for first year students with an interest in the theory and practice of social justice. We combine community outreach placements with small seminar discussions and class lectures to explore the interdisciplinary frameworks of social justice and injustice, leading toward understanding of society and our place within it. Small stream seminar discussions, weekly lectures on theory, philosophy and cultural expressions of identity and society in historical and contemporary contexts are combined with service placements in local Toronto agencies. Through critical and creative reflection, students acquire the academic skills and support to cultivate social responsibility in their lives and academic studies.
The culture of Antigua and Barbuda local creole pronunciation, Antiga and Barbueda is a classic example of a creole culture. Specific traces of these parent cultures as well as influences from other Caribbean islands e. Antigua and Barbuda are two islands in the Eastern Caribbean chain.
Antigua, or Wadadli, has an area of square miles, square kilometers while Barbuda, or Wa'omoni, is 62 square miles square kilometers in area, making for a twin island microstate of square miles square kilometers. This state includes the tiny by Caribbean standards island of Redonda, which has remained uninhabited.
Antigua is an island of both volcanic origin and sedimentary rock limestone formation. Its jagged coastline is over 90 miles kilometers long, producing hundreds of beautiful white sand beaches, bays, and coves. Barbuda is of limestone formation and very flat.
The highest point on the island rises to only feet 39 meters. The capital of this state is Saint John's, which is located at the northwestern end of Antigua.
The population census of estimated the population of Antigua and Barbuda to be 64, Approximately 93 percent of this total are Afro-Antiguans and Barbudans, 0. The estimate by the Department of Statistics placed the population at 69, and projected a figure of 72, for These increases are the result of significant inflows of migrants from Guyana, Dominica, and the Dominican Republic.
Migrants from the latter have given rise to a small Spanish-speaking community on Antigua. Given the creole nature of its culture, it is not surprising that the language spoken by the vast majority of Antiguans and Barbudans is a creole, often referred to as Antiguan creole.
This makes the culture a bilingual one. The other language is standard English, which is the official language and the language of instruction. This linguistic situation derives from the colonial history of the nation, which was one of years of near continuous British rule. Consequently, Antiguan creole is essentially a hybrid product of West African languages and English.
As one moves up the class hierarchy, there is a gradual shift from creole to English as the first language. The cultural symbols that embody the national identity of Antigua and Barbuda emerged out of the anticolonial struggles for political independence, which began in the s.
Consequently these symbols tend to be images that celebrate liberation from a number of oppressive conditions and periods in the history of the nation: Good examples of these symbols are the national anthem, the flag, and the national Antigua and Barbuda coats of arm, which display the sun, a pineapple, and the flowers and seas of the state.
They can also be seen in more fleeting form in festivals such as carnival. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. The emergence of Antigua and Barbuda as an independent nation was the result of the confluence of a number of international currents with the local struggles for decolonization.
The need for such an organization was recognized by several individuals—a group that included Harold Wilson, Norris Allen, Reginald Stevens, and V. Allen took the lead by calling the meeting at which the union was formed. Stevens was its first president and Berkeley Richards its first general secretary.
As the union got more deeply involved in the struggles of workers against sugar plantation owners, it became increasingly political. Bird vigorously pushed a heady mix of laborism and state capitalism that came to be known locally as milk and water socialism.
Further, through its political arm, the ATLU began successfully contesting the small number of seats in the legislature that were elective.
The resulting acquisition of a measure of state power changed the balance of forces in the struggles of workers with plantation owners. Between anduniversal adult suffrage and self-government became high-priority demands of the union. From this point on the labor movement could not be distinguished from the nationalist movement.
This politicization led to new rounds of strikes and political confrontations with the planters and the elites of the colonial state. These struggles, reinforced by those in other Caribbean territories, by the struggles in African countries, and by the opposition of the United States and Russia to European colonial policies, finally pushed the British to dismantle their empire.
The dismantling was executed via a process of constitutional decolonization that gradually transferred sovereignty to a set of elected leaders such as those of the ALP. Between andwhen Antigua and Barbuda achieved independence from Britain, there were at least five important sets of decolonizing constitutional changes that paved the way to national independence.
As the leader of the ALP, Bird was the nation's first prime minister. At the top of this hierarchy were the British, who justified their hegemony with arguments of white supremacy and civilizing missions. Among themselves, there were divisions between British Antiguans and noncreolized Britons, with the latter coming out on top.
Immediately below the British were the mulattos, a mixed race group that resulted from unions between black Africans and white Europeans.Culture of Antigua And Barbuda - history, traditions, women, beliefs, food, family, social, marriage, life A-Bo.
Exclusion: SMCH1 () Recommended Preparation: SMCY1/SMCH1 Distribution Requirement Status: Humanities Breadth Requirement: Creative and Cultural Representations (1). Exclusion: SMCH1 () Recommended Preparation: SMCY1/SMCH1 Distribution Requirement Status: Humanities Breadth Requirement: Creative and Cultural Representations (1).
History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. The emergence of Antigua and Barbuda as an independent nation was the result of the confluence of a number of international currents with the local struggles for decolonization. Motto: Auspicio Regis et Senatus Angliae "By command of the King and Parliament of England".
The Stamp Act Congress issued a “Declaration of Rights and Grievances,” which, like the Virginia Resolves, declared allegiance to the king and “all due subordination” to Parliament but also reasserted the idea that colonists were .