An analysis of the usefulness of high school websites

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An analysis of the usefulness of high school websites

This figure describes the eight major research syntheses on the effects of homework published from to that provide the basis for the analysis in this article. The Cooper a study included more than empirical research reports, and the Cooper, Robinson, and Patall study included about 50 empirical research reports.

The meta-analysis reviewed research dating as far back as the s; the study reviewed research from to Commenting on studies that attempted to examine the causal relationship between homework and student achievement by comparing experimental homework and control no homework groups, Cooper, Robinson, and Patall noted, With only rare exceptions, the relationship between the amount of homework students do and their achievement outcomes was found to be positive and statistically significant.

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Therefore, we think it would not be imprudent, based on the evidence in hand, to conclude that doing homework causes improved academic achievement.

The End of Homework: How Homework Disrupts Families, Overburdens Children, and Limits Learning by Kralovec and Buellconsidered by many to be the first high-profile attack on homework, asserted that homework contributes to a corporate-style, competitive U.

An analysis of the usefulness of high school websites

The authors focused particularly on the harm to economically disadvantaged students, who are unintentionally penalized because their environments often make it almost impossible to complete assignments at home.

The authors called for people to unite against homework and to lobby for an extended school day instead.

The Case for Homework

These authors criticized both the quantity and quality of homework. They provided evidence that too much homework harms students' health and family time, and they asserted that teachers are not well trained in how to assign homework.

The authors suggested that individuals and parent groups should insist that teachers reduce the amount of homework, design more valuable assignments, and avoid homework altogether over breaks and holidays. In a third book, The Homework Myth: In this book and in a recent article in Phi Delta Kappan bhe became quite personal in his condemnation of researchers.

For example, referring to Harris Cooper, the lead author of the two leading meta-analyses on homework, Kohn noted, A careful reading of Cooper's own studies.

Finally, Kohn urged teachers to involve students in deciding what homework, and how much, they should do. Some of Kohn's recommendations have merit. For example, it makes good sense to only assign homework that is beneficial to student learning instead of assigning homework as a matter of policy.

Many of those who conduct research on homework explicitly or implicitly recommend this practice. However, his misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the research sends the inaccurate message that research does not support homework. As Figure 1 indicates, homework has decades of research supporting its effective use.

Kohn's allegations that researchers are trying to mislead practitioners and the general public are unfounded and detract from a useful debate on effective practice.

All three of the books criticizing homework provide compelling anecdotes to this effect. Schools should strengthen their policies to ensure that teachers use homework properly.

If a district or school discards homework altogether, however, it will be throwing away a powerful instructional tool. Cooper and colleagues' comparison of homework with no homework indicates that the average student in a class in which appropriate homework was assigned would score 23 percentile points higher on tests of the knowledge addressed in that class than the average student in a class in which homework was not assigned.

Perhaps the most important advantage of homework is that it can enhance achievement by extending learning beyond the school day. This characteristic is important because U. A report examined the amount of time U. To drop the use of homework, then, a school or district would be obliged to identify a practice that produces a similar effect within the confines of the school day without taking away or diminishing the benefits of other academic activities—no easy accomplishment.

A better approach is to ensure that teachers use homework effectively. To enact effective homework policies, however, schools and districts must address the following issues. Grade Level Although teachers across the K—12 spectrum commonly assign homework, research has produced no clear-cut consensus on the benefits of homework at the early elementary grade levels.

An analysis of the usefulness of high school websites

In his early meta-analysis, Cooper a reported the following effect sizes p. Even so, Cooper b still recommended homework for elementary students because homework for young children should help them develop good study habits, foster positive attitudes toward school, and communicate to students the idea that learning takes work at home as well as at school.

In The Battle over HomeworkCooper noted that homework should have different purposes at different grade levels: For students in the earliest grades, it should foster positive attitudes, habits, and character traits; permit appropriate parent involvement; and reinforce learning of simple skills introduced in class.

For students in upper elementary grades, it should play a more direct role in fostering improved school achievement.

In 6th grade and beyond, it should play an important role in improving standardized test scores and grades. Time Spent on Homework One of the more contentious issues in the homework debate is the amount of time students should spend on homework.

The Cooper synthesis a reported that for junior high school students, the benefits increased as time increased, up to 1 to 2 hours of homework a night, and then decreased.

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The Cooper, Robinson, and Patall study reported similar findings: The researchers suggested that for 12th graders the optimum amount of homework might lie between 1.Oct 29,  · And bad essay examples high school; Your search results.

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93% of studies on student testing, including the use of large-scale and high-stakes standardized tests, found a "positive effect" on student achievement, according to a peer-reviewed, year analysis of testing research completed in by testing scholar Richard P.

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